The National Flood Insurance Program expires on September 30, and no, Congress has not yet decided how it’s going to extend the program. According to this article in the Wall Street Journal, there’s unlikely to be a long-term agreement before the expiration date.
Private insurers won’t offer flood insurance to areas where flooding is likely, notably parts of Texas and Florida, so the NFIP was created to reduce reliance on federal disaster aid. The idea was that local communities would create (and enforce) laws to map flood plains and reduce the danger to new properties, and the federal government would offer flood insurance.
Unfortunately, rather than reduce the flood danger, the availability of inexpensive insurance (premiums are about $600 per year) encouraged people to move to flood zones. In 2004, the plan paid out $200 million per year just for “repetitive-loss properties.”